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Cell proliferation and apoptosis

Class at Faculty of Science |



1. Cell proliferation and cell death · Cell proliferation: cell cycle Cell death: necrosis programmed cell death (apoptosis) · Biological importance of cell proliferation · Biological importance of apoptosis · Basic mechanisms of regulation of proliferation and apoptosis

2. Extracellular signaling · Cell-extracellular matrix interaction · Cell-cell interaction: intercellular communication · Gap junction & interaction of plasma membrane molecules Extracellular signaling molecules · Structure and function of extracellular signaling molecules · Endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and synaptic signaling · Hormones, cytokines s. L., Neurotransmitters, retinoids · Cytokines s .: growth factors, lymphokines and monokines, interferons, others

3. Signal transmission to the cell · Diffusion of gas molecules and hydrophobic molecules · Membrane receptor interaction · Structure and function of membrane receptors Receptors associated with ion channels G protein-coupled receptors · Receptor kinases: receptor tyrosine kinases & receptor serine-threonine kinases Kinase-associated receptors · Death domain receptors

4. Intracellular signaling and signal realization · NO signaling & signaling of hydrophobic molecules · Signaling via ligand-regulated ion channels Signaling via receptors associated with G protein: activation of PLC, activation of adenylate cyclase, activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase Ca2 + in intracellular signaling Signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases: activation of Ras, activation of PI3 kinase Signaling via receptor serine-threonine kinases Signaling via receptors associated with kinases: activation of Jak kinases · Signaling via receptors with death domain · NFĸB signaling & Wnt signaling

5. Cell cycle · Phases and functional phases of the cell cycle · DNA replication · Mitosis · Cytokinesis · Doubling of cell functional capacities · Go phase

6. Cell cycle regulation · Mechanisms of cell cycle regulation: activation & progression · Mechanisms of activation: primary response genes & secondary genes · Function of primary response genes · Rb protein function · Mechanisms of progression: cyclins and CDKs · Cylindrical / CDK complexes and their functions · APC function CDK inhibitors

7. Cell differentiation Proliferation of early embryonic cells · Differentiation process and basic principles of differentiation · Mechanisms of regulation of differentiation during ontogenesis · Mechanisms of regulation of differentiation in providing of organism functions · Signaling molecules to control differentiation · Dedifferentiation

8. Cell aging · The process of cell aging · Hayflick limit · Causes of cell aging · Accumulation of mutations and damages (including mitochondrial genome damage): oxidative damage · The role of insulin signaling · Telomer shortening: telomerase

9. Apoptosis · Programmed cell death · The role of apoptosis in cell number regulation · The role of apoptosis in ontogenesis · The role of apoptosis in the immune system · Apoptosis and pathological conditions Caspases: initiation caspases and execution caspases · Substrates of death

10. Regulation of apoptosis · Mechanisms of apoptosis regulation: endogenous and exogenous signals · The role of p53 · Regulation of glucocorticoids and cytokines · Regulation of death domain receptor ligands · Granzyme B regulation · Role of Bcl-2 family proteins: Bcl-2 family antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins · Caspase activation mechanisms: Death domain receptor & mitochondrial pathway

11. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes · Oncogen function · Viral and cellular oncogenes · Genetic mechanisms of oncogen activation · Functional groups of oncogenes · Mechanisms of action of DNA viral oncogenes · Function of tumor suppressor genes · Rh gene and p53 gene as tumor suppressor genes

12. Cell transformation · Transformed cells · Mechanisms of transformation · The role of genetic changes in cell transformation · Carcinogens and their types · Mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogens · Mechanisms of UV and ionizing radiation exposure · Mechanisms of action of viruses

13. Methods of cell proliferation and apoptosis · Experimental models · Cell cycle analysis · Detection of apoptosis · Determination of gene expression · Determination of cell localization



(lecture annotation)

The lecture deals with cell proliferation and apoptosis within the cell life cycle, including downstream processes and mechanisms of their regulation. Initially, the biological importance of cell proliferation and apoptosis is mentioned. The following part deals with signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanisms of signal transduction across plasma membrane including relevant membrane receptors are discussed as well as mechanisms of intracellular signaling and signal realization. The cell cycle, i.e., the individual phases of the cell cycle, and the Go phase are then discussed in detail. Subsequently, mechanisms of cell cycle regulation are discussed. Processes related to cell proliferation and eventually leading to apoptosis such as embryonic growth, differentiation and cell aging are also discussed. Apoptosis and mechanisms of apoptosis regulation are discussed in detail. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes as well as their functions are discussed as well as cell transformation including cancer. Finally, basic methods of studying cell proliferation and apoptosis are discussed.