1. Basic terms Matter and radiation, amount of substance - mol, Avogadro constant, extensive and intensive quantities, molar quantities, units of concentration. Mass and energy conservation laws, units of energy, energy of molecular movement - translation, rotation, vibration, thermal energy, equipartition principle of classical physics.

2. Properties of gases States of substances, units of pressure and temperature, standard values of pressure and temperature, temperature scales, perfect gas equation. Kinetic theory of gases: distribution of speed, mean square speed, mean speed, most probable speed, mean energy, intermolecular collisions, collision frequency, collision density, mean free path, collision with surfaces. Real gases: compression factor, virial equation of state, van der Waals equation, critical constants of real gases.

3. First law of thermodynamics Internal energy, expansion work, reversible and irreversible processes, functions of state, enthalpy, heat capacities, expansion work in reversible and irreversible processes, isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression of ideal gas. Thermochemistry: enthalpy (heat) of fusion, boiling, sublimation, enthalpy (heat) of reaction, formation, combustion, dependence of reaction enthalpy on temperature, Hess law.

4. Second law of thermodynamics Definition of entropy of system and environment, Clausius inequality, calculation of entropy, heat engines, heat pump, their efficiency definition of Helmholtz and Gibbs energy, spontaneity and equilibrium of processes, thermodynamic equation of state, Maxwell equations, dependence of Gibbs energy on temperature and pressure.Definition of chemical potential of pure substance, chemical potential of ideal gas, fugacity of real gases and its calculation.

5. Pure substances Solid substances, liquids, gases, phase changes, Gibbs law of phases, phase equilibria, Clapeyron equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, water vapour in air, relative humidity.

6. Mixtures Partial molar quantities, partial molar volume, chemical potential of mixture, Raoult law, Henry law, colligative properties of solutions: elevation of boiling point depression of freezing point, solubility, osmotic pressure, physiological values of osmolarity. Boiling of mixture of liquids: distillation, rectification, phase diagrams p-x, T-x, azeotropic mixtures, distillation with water steam. Definition of activity, activity of mixture of gases, activity of liquid solution, mixing Gibbs function.

7. Chemical equilibria Reaction Gibbs energy, standard reaction Gibbs energy, equilibrium constant, dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature (van't Hoff equation), dependence of equilibrium composition on pressure, calculation of equilibrium composition of reaction mixture, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria. A more detailed syllabus together with equations is available at the Web page http://www.natur.cuni.cz/gas

Physical Chemistry I

The lecture is the first part of the Physical Chemistry course, intended for students of various branches of Chemistry. It introduces the basics of of thermodynamics and presents examples of its use for studying systems at equilibrium. The lectures are complemented by a hands-on problem solving course in which we apply the theoretical knowledge. Passing of the problem-solving course is a prerequisite to taking the exam.