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General chemistry

Class at Faculty of Science |


1. Introduction - Basic concepts for characterization of substances and their systems, quantities and units. Basic chemical laws and principles. Dualistic nature of matter: matter and field.

2. Structure of atom - Structure of atomic nucleus, nuclides and isotopes. Nuclear stability and natural and artificial radioactivity. Electron shell of an atom: quantum mechanical model, atomic orbitals and their representation. Laws of electron envelope construction and periodicity of properties of elements.

3. Structure of molecules - Quantum mechanical explanation of chemical bonds, molecular orbitals, polarity of bonds, hybrid orbitals. Covalent, ionic, coordination covalent and weak binding interaction. Binding interactions in biologically important molecules.

4. Structure and properties of substances - Electrical, magnetic and optical properties of substances and their importance for the study of the structure of substances (overview). Overview of atomic and molecular spectroscopy methods, their principles and applications. Examples of spectroscopic studies of biologically important molecules.

5. State of matter - Gaseous state: ideal and real gas, equations of state, liquefaction of gases and critical state. Liquid state: vapor pressure over liquid, surface tension and viscosity of liquids (overview). Solid state: crystalline and amorphous substances, bond types in crystals.

6. Chemical kinetics - Basic concepts of chemical kinetics. Isolated 1st and 2nd order reactions. Simultaneous reactions: reversible, sequential and lateral (overview). Dependence of reaction rate on temperature, reaction mechanisms, catalysis.

7. Chemical energy - Basic concepts, quantities and principles of thermodynamics and their applications. Thermal balance of chemical reactions, characterization of system order, conditions of spontaneous course of chemical reactions in various types of systems.

8. Equilibrium states - Chemical potential and Gibbs phase law. Examples of phase diagram construction and application of Gibbs law of phases. Phase interface equilibrium and its practical use. Chemical equilibrium, principle of dynamic equilibrium, Guldberg - Waag law, equilibrium constant. Equilibrium composition of reaction mixture, degree of conversion of reactant, influence of reaction conditions on degree of conversion.

9. Electrochemistry - Equilibria in electrolyte solutions: basic concepts - electrolytic dissociation, strong and weak electrolytes, ideal and real solutions, ionic strength of solutions, activity. Solubility of salts. Definition of pH. Dissociation of acids and bases, dissociation constant. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffers. Calculation of pH solutions of acids, bases, salts and buffers. Electrolysis. Electrode equilibria, electrode potential. Types of electrodes and their practical use.


The plenary lecture "General chemistry" provides the basic knowledge necessary for further study of chemical subjects. Interpretation is performed in basic level (in some chapters simplified). The aim of the lecture is to understand basic physical-chemical terms, relations and methodologies and their importance and practical use, with a number of examples from the study of the structure and function of biologically important molecules. The lecture assumes basic knowledge of mathematics, physics, and chemistry at the level of average secondary school. The lecture of 3 hours per week is supplemented by 2 hours per week seminar.

The lecture takes place in person, in case of impossibility to attend the faculty or the impossibility of full-time teaching, the course will take place in the online environment Microsoft Teams.

It is necessary to log in to the Microsoft Teams platform with a faculty/university e-mail and a faculty/university login!