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1. Introduction Notion of low temperature physics. History of reaching and use of low temperatures. Ways to absolute zero. Review of liquefying and cooling methods. *

2. Superfluidity Superfluid 4He. Experiments in He II. Bose-Einstein statistics. Two-fluid model. Landau theory of excitations. Feynman theory of vortices. Sound propagation in He II. Ions in liquid He. Superfluid 3He phases. Fermi-Dirac statistics. Condensates, dynamic and magnetic properties of the A, A1 and B phases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Topology and collective modes. Rotating superfluid 3He. Mixture of 3He and 4He, dilution refrigerator. Pomeranchuk effect. Solid 4He and 3He. Magnetism of solid 3He. *

3. Superconductivity Electrical resistance, Meissner effect. London equation. Magnetic properties of superconductors. Microscopic theory, BCS theory. Flux quantization, quantum vortices. Weak superconductivity, Josephson effects, SQUID. High temperature superconductors. *

4. Magnetism at low temperature Paramagnetism, adiabatic demagnetization. Nuclear magnetism, nuclear demagnetization. Static orientation of nuclear moments. NMR and relaxation at low temperatures. Magnetic thermometry (susceptibility, nuclear orientation, NMR thermometry). *

5. Selected topics of solid state physics at low temperature Heat capacity of solids, thermal relaxation. Heat transfer, Kapitza resistance. Resistance thermometry. Quantum Hall effect.

Basic properties of cryogenic liquids, Joule-Thomson effect, principles of helium liquefier. Mechanical and electrical properties of materials at low temperatures.

Bath and flow cryostats. Suoerconducting magnets. 3He - 4He mixtures, dilution refrigerator.

Adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts, nuclear demagnetization. Pomeranchuk effect.

Cooling methods based on transport effects in solids. Low temperature thermometry.

Kapitza resistance. Low temperature relaxation process.