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Cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis in children; risk factors for development

Publication at Second Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové |


Purpose To compare anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI]) in patients without lithiasis to patients with symptomatic simple cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 147 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy between 2001-2015.

Complete growth data from 98 patients was compared with anthropometric data from the population of the Czech Republic and a control group (BMI of 100 consecutive patients without biliary stones in abdominal ultrasound who were admitted to a surgical department for suspected appendicitis). Results The BMI of 75 children with simple cholelithiasis and 23 with choledocholithiasis was compared to the standard Czech pediatric population and to the control group.

The median age (simple cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis) was 16 years, and 35 patients (24%) had a family history of gallstones. Types of lithiasis included multiple (n = 120), solitary (n = 11), and sludge (n = 10).

Five cases had polyps and one had gallbladder dysplasia. Patients with simple cholelithiasis had significantly higher BMI compared to the control group without cholelithiasis (p<0.0001) and the standard Czech population (p = 0.03).

Patients with choledocholithiasis had a mean BMI significantly higher than that of the general population (p = 0.001) and the control group (p = 0.0001). Patients with choledocholithiasis had significantly higher BMI than those with simple cholelithiasis (p = 0.03).

Conclusion Patients with cholelithiasis had significantly higher BMI than the general population, and patients with choledocholithiasis had significantly higher BMI than patients with simple lithiasis. Elevated BMI is a risk factor for developing choledocholithiasis.

ERCP and early laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with choledocholithiasis offer equivalent outcomes in patients with simple cholelithiasis.