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Validation of new marker of fluid Mark responsiveness based on Doppler assessment of blood flow velocity in superior vena cava in mechanically ventilated pigs

Publication at First Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Education |


Background: We studied a novel approach for the evaluation and management of volemia: minimally invasive monitoring of respiratory blood flow variations in the superior vena cava (SVC). We performed an experiment with 10 crossbred (Landrace x large white) female pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

Methods: Hypovolemia was induced by bleeding from a femoral artery, in six stages. This was followed by blood return and then an infusion of 1000 ml saline, resulting in hypervolemia.

Flow in the SVC was measured by Flowire (Volcano corp., USA), located in a distal channel of a triple-lumen central venous catheter. The key parameters measured were venous return variation index (VRV)-a new index for fluid responsiveness, calculated from the maximal and minimal velocity time intervals during controlled ventilation-and systolic peak velocity (defined as peak velocity of a systolic wave using the final end-expiratory beat).

A Swan-Ganz catheter (Edwards Lifesciences, USA) was introduced into the pulmonary artery to measure pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and continuous cardiac output measurements, using the Vigilance monitor (Edwards Lifesciences, USA). Results: We analyzed 44 VRV index measurements during defined hemodynamic status events.

The curves of VRV indexes for volume responders and volume non-responders intersected at a VRV value of 27, with 10% false negativity and 2% false positivity. We compared the accuracy of VRV and pulse pressure variations (PPV) for separation of fluid responders and fluid non-responders using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

VRV was better (AUCROC 0.96) than PPV (AUCROC 0.85) for identification of fluid responders. The VRV index exhibited the highest relative change during both hypovolemia and hypervolemia, compared to standard hemodynamic measurement.

Conclusions: The VRV index provides a real-time method for continuous assessment of fluid responsiveness. It combines the advantages of echocardiography-based methods with a direct and continuous assessment of right ventricular filling during mechanical ventilation.