Charles Explorer logo

Long-term consequences of preterm birth on respiratory system in children

Publication at First Faculty of Medicine |


Preterm birth is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The severity of long-term structural and functional changes is usually inversely related to gestational age and birth weight category.

Chronic lung disease of immaturity is mainly developed in very preterm (28-31 week of gestation) and extremely preterm infants (bellow 28 week of gestation) and its development is not necessarily associated with the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Despite the impact of immaturity on the vulnerable developing respiratory tract is moderated by huge progress in the development of modern medical equipment for respiratory support and pharmacotherapy; however, these advances lead to the general total increment of infants with the immature respiratory tract.

The whole number of children with severe CLDI remain stable. Immaturity, together with other additional compounding factors, may lead to persistent respiratory tract pathology with improving clinical manifestation during childhood but lifelong functional and structural abnormality with uncertain prognosis till adulthood.