Publication at Faculty of Mathematics and Physics |

2022

Very low frequency wave intensity variations measured by the Kannuslehto station, Finland in the frequency range 0-12 kHz between 2016 and 2020 are analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). As the analyzed ground-based measurements are basically continuous, the length of individual basis vectors entering into PCA is fundamentally arbitrary.

To better characterize both long- and short-period variations, two PCAs with different lengths of the basis vectors are eventually performed. Specifically, either daily frequency-time spectrograms or individual frequency spectra are chosen as the PCA basis vectors.

Analysis of the first three principal components shows substantial variations of the wave intensity due to seasonal and local time effects. Intensity variations related to the geomagnetic activity characterized by Kp and AE indices and standard deviation of the magnetic field magnitude are less significant.

Moreover, PCA allows one to distinguish between nighttime and daytime Kannuslehto variations and study them independently. Solar and geomagnetic activity effects on the daytime and nighttime measurements are discussed.

Wave intensity variations related to substorm occurrence are also analyzed.