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Methods of preoperative prediction of pituitary adenoma consistency: a systematic review

Publication at Central Library of Charles University, First Faculty of Medicine, Second Faculty of Medicine |


This study aims to review the current literature on methods of preoperative prediction of pituitary adenoma consistency. Pituitary adenoma consistency may be a limiting factor for successful surgical removal of tumors.

Efforts have been made to investigate the possibility of an accurate assessment of the preoperative consistency to allow for safer and more effective surgery planning. We searched major scientific databases and systematically analyzed the results.

A total of 54 relevant articles were identified and selected for inclusion. These studies evaluated methods based on either MRI intensity, enhancement, radiomics, MR elastometry, or CT evaluation.

The results of these studies varied widely. Most studies used the average intensity of either T2WI or ADC maps.

Firm tumors appeared hyperintense on T2WI, although only 55% of the studies reported statistically significant results. There are mixed reports on ADC values in firm tumors with findings of increased values (28%), decreased values (22%), or no correlation (50%).

Multiple contrast enhancement-based methods showed good results in distinguishing between soft and firm tumors. There were mixed reports on the utility of MR elastography.

Attempts to develop radiomics and machine learning-based models have achieved high accuracy and AUC values; however, they are prone to overfitting and need further validation. Multiple methods of preoperative consistency assessment have been studied.

None demonstrated sufficient accuracy and reliability in clinical use. Further efforts are needed to enable reliable surgical planning.