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The impact of vaccination on the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease from a nationwide surveillance program in Lebanon: an unexpected increase in mortality driven by non-vaccine serotypes

Publication at Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen |


BackgroundThe impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and serotype distribution was examined across age groups from data collected by the Lebanese Inter-Hospital Pneumococcal Surveillance Program.MethodsBetween 2005 and 2020, 593 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were collected from 79 hospitals throughout Lebanon. Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were identified, and trends compared over 3 eras: PCV7, post-PCV7/ pre-PCV13, and PCV13 eras.ResultsThe prevalence of PCV7 serotypes decreased significantly from 43.6% in the PCV7 era to 17.8% during the PCV13 era (p<0.001).

PCV13-only serotypes remained stable in the PCV13 compared to the post-PCV7 eras, especially serotypes 1 and 3, whereas non-vaccine types (NVT) increased throughout the study period, especially 24 and 16F. The mortality rate increased substantially from 12.5% (PCV7 era) to 24.8% (PCV13 era).

A significant decrease in AMR was observed across the three study eras.ConclusionPCVs substantially impacted IPD and AMR in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations despite an increase in mortality driven by NVT. Broadening the recommendation of vaccination to include older age-groups, using higher valency vaccines, and implementing stringent antimicrobial stewardship are likely to further impact the burden of IPD.