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Has been changed numbers and characteristics of patients with major amputations indicated for the diabetic foot in our department during last decade?

Publication at Central Library of Charles University |


INTRODUCTION: One of the most serious complications of the diabetic foot (DF) is a major amputation, which is associated with poor patient prognosis. The occurrence of major amputations may be influenced by a variety of factors including deep infection caused by resistant pathogens.The aims of our study were to compare the incidence of major amputations in podiatric center, characteristics of amputated patients with the DF and other factors contributing to major amputations in last decade.METHODS: We included into our study all patients hospitalized for the DF in our center whose underwent major amputations from 9/2004 to 9/2006 (group 1) and from 9/2013 to 9/2015 (group 2).

Risk factors such as severity of DF ulcers based on Texas classification, duration of previous anti-biotic therapy, the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) according to Graziani classification, the number of revascularizations, renal failure/hemodialysis, osteomyelitis, infectious agents found before amputations and their resistance were compared between the study groups.RESULTS: During the 1st study period (9/2004-9/2006) 373 patients were hospitalized for the DF, of whom 3.2 % underwent major amputation (12/373 - group 1), during the 2nd study period (9/2013-9/2015) 376 patients, of whom 5.1 % absolved major amputation (19/376 - group 2). As the numbers of major amputations as their indications were similar in both study groups.

The study groups did not differ significantly in the age, BMI, duration and type of diabetes, duration of DF and severity of DF ulcers, the presence of renal failure/hemodialysis, osteomyelitis and PAD. Group 2 had milder forms of PAD by Graziani classification (4.4 +-1.4 vs 5.7 +- 0.9; p = 0.012) and a higher number of revascularizations before major amputations (2.5 +- 1.5 vs 1 +- 1; p = 0.003) compared to the group 1.

These patients were significantly longer treated by antibiotics (5.4 +- 2.4 vs 2.5 +- 2 months; p = 0.002) and underwent more resections and minor amputations (3.1 +- 2.1 vs 0.9 +- 0.5; p = 0.0004) before major amputations in contrast to the group 1. There was a trend to higher incidence of Gram-negatives (65.1 % vs 61.5 %; NS) with a predominance of Enterobacteriacae species (60.7 % vs 56 %; NS) and a trend to the increase of Pseudomonas (25 % vs 18.8 %; NS) and Enterococci sp. (46.7 % vs 20 %; NS) in the group 2 compared to the group 1.

The incidences as of MRSA, multidrug resistant Pseudomonas sp. of other resistant microbes were similar in both study groups.CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of major amputations in patients hospitalized for the DF remains unchanged during the last decade. The therapy of factors leading to amputations has evidently intensified.

This is in accordance with the latest international recommendations for the therapy of DF. In the future, it is appropriate to focus on the improvement of detection and treatment of infection and ischemia in such risk group of patients.Key words: diabetic foot - major amputation.