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Survival advantage of treosulfan plus fludarabine (FT14) compared to busulfan plus fludarabine (FB4) in active acute myeloid leukemia post allogeneic transplantation: an analysis from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP)

Publication at Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové |


We compared FT14 (fludarabine 150-160 mg/m(2), treosulfan 42 g/m(2)) versus FB4 (fludarabine 150-160 mg/m(2), busulfan 12.8 mg/kg) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transplanted at primary refractory/relapsed disease. We retrospectively studied: (a) adults diagnosed with AML, (b) recipients of first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from unrelated/sibling donor (2010-2020), (c) HSCT with primary refractory/relapsed disease, (d) conditioning regimen with FT14 or FB4.

We studied 346 patients, 113 transplanted with FT14, and 233 with F & UBeta;4. FT14 patients were significantly older, more frequently had an unrelated donor and had received a lower dose of fludarabine.

Cumulative incidence (CI) of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade III-IV and extensive chronic GVHD was similar. With a median follow-up of 28.7 months, 2-year CI of relapse was 43.4% in FT14 versus 53.2% in FB4, while non-relapse mortality (NRM) was respectively 20.8% versus 22.6%.

This led to 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) of 35.8% for FT14 versus 24.2% in FB4, and overall survival (OS) of 44.4% versus 34%. Adverse cytogenetics and conditioning regimen independently predicted CI of relapse.

Furthermore, conditioning regimen was the only independent predictor of LFS, OS, and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival. Therefore, our real-world multicenter study suggests that FT14 is associated with better outcomes in primary refractory/relapsed AML.